The movement of scientific methods of production or distribution from one enterprise, institution or country to another, as through foreign investment, international trade, licensing of patents rights, technical assistance or training. The process to commercially exploit research varies widely. It can involve licensing agreements or setting up joint ventures and partnerships to share both the risks and rewards of bringing new technologies to market. Other corporate vehicles, e.g. spin-outs, are used where the host organization does not have the necessary resources or skills to develop a new technology. In international markets, usually, is transmitted through International Technology Transfer Agreements.
Examples of forms of transfer technology include:
- Commercial transfer - transfer of knowledge or technology from government to commercial organizations for potential or new/improved technologies
- Exporting resources - collaborative agreements or volunteer services that provide expertise to outside organizations
- Importing resources - a cooperative effort that brings outside technology (pull) into the agency/laboratory to enhance its mission
- Dual-use - development of technologies that have "dual" or commercial/government applications
- Scientific dissemination - the multidirectional sharing of government, industry, and academic publications (i.e., conference papers, working papers, etc.)